How Diseases Can Be Transmitted By Vectors?

Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod species, such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomine bugs, sandflies, and blackflies. Arthropod vectors are cold-blooded (ectothermic) and thus especially sensitive to climatic factors.

What are the 4 major disease vectors?

Disease vectors

  • Malaria (protozoan): Anopheles species of mosquito.
  • Lymphatic filariasis (nematode worm): Culex, Anopheles, Aedes species of mosquito.
  • Dengue (virus): Aedes species of mosquito.
  • Leishmaniasis (protozoan): mainly Phlebotomus species of sandfly.

What are the most common vectors that transmit diseases?

Mosquitoes are the best known disease vector. Others include ticks, flies, sandflies, fleas, triatomine bugs and some freshwater aquatic snails. Diseases transmitted by vectors include: malaria, dengue, Zika virus, Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis, Chikungunya, Rift Valley fever.

What are the 5 methods of disease transmission?

The transmission of microorganisms can be divided into the following five main routes: direct contact, fomites, aerosol (airborne), oral (ingestion), and vectorborne.

How are diseases transmitted?

Infectious diseases commonly spread through the direct transfer of bacteria, viruses or other germs from one person to another. This can happen when an individual with the bacterium or virus touches, kisses, or coughs or sneezes on someone who isn’t infected.

Why might diseases transmitted by vectors be harder to control than those transmitted by other means?

When the incidence of infected animals or the disease itself increases alarmingly, it is very difficult to control its spread. For that reason, susceptible animals need to be vaccinated. This is usually the most effective measure in these cases, but always accompanied by vector control.

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Why are vectors important in the transmission of disease?

Vector-borne diseases are illnesses that are transmitted by vectors, which include mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. These vectors can carry infective pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoa, which can be transferred from one host (carrier) to another.

Can humans be vectors for disease?

Many factors affect the incidence of vector-borne diseases. These factors include animals hosting the disease, vectors, and people. Humans can also be vectors for some diseases, such as Tobacco mosaic virus, physically transmitting the virus with their hands from plant to plant.

Are vector-borne diseases communicable?

Communicable Diseases – Vector-borne Diseases. ​What are vectors? Vectors are living organisms that can transmit infectious diseases between humans (or from animals) to humans.

What does vector transmission mean?

Vector transmission occurs when a living organism carries an infectious agent on its body (mechanical) or as an infection host itself (biological), to a new host. Vehicle transmission occurs when a substance, such as soil, water, or air, carries an infectious agent to a new host.

What are 3 ways in which diseases can be transmitted?

Germs can spread from person to person through:

  • the air as droplets or aerosol particles.
  • faecal-oral spread.
  • blood or other body fluids.
  • skin or mucous membrane contact.
  • sexual contact.

What is vector-borne transmission of disease?

Vector-Borne Disease: Disease that results from an infection transmitted to humans and other animals by blood-feeding anthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. Examples of vector-borne diseases include Dengue fever, West Nile Virus, Lyme disease, and malaria.

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What are the 6 main methods of disease transmission?

Modes of transmission

  • Direct. Direct contact. Droplet spread.
  • Indirect. Airborne. Vehicleborne. Vectorborne (mechanical or biologic)

How are communicable diseases transmitted?

A communicable disease is one that is spread from one person to another through a variety of ways that include: contact with blood and bodily fluids; breathing in an airborne virus; or by being bitten by an insect.

How are infectious diseases transmitted by indirect contact?

Indirect contact infections spread when an infected person sneezes or coughs, sending infectious droplets into the air. If healthy people inhale the infectious droplets, or if the contaminated droplets land directly in their eyes, nose or mouth, they risk becoming ill.

What diseases are spread by droplets?

Many common infections can spread by droplet transmission in at least some cases, including: Common cold, Diphtheria, Fifth disease (erythema infectiosum), Influenza, Meningitis, Mycoplasma, Mumps, Pertussis (whooping cough), Plague, Rubella, Strep (strep throat, scarlet fever, pneumonia).