Citrobacter are found in a variety of environmental sources, including soil and water, and in the human intestines. They are rarely the primary source of illness, though some strains can cause infections of the urinary tract, sepsis, and infant meningitis.
How do you get Citrobacter?
Citrobacter species are commonly found in water, soil, food, and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many Citrobacter infections are nosocomially acquired; however, they can also be community acquired. A large surveillance study demonstrated that 0.8% of Gram-negative infection was caused by Citrobacter spp.
Where is Citrobacter found?
The genus Citrobacter was discovered in 1932 by Werkman and Gillen. These organisms are found in soil, water, intestinal tract of animals, and in human clinical samples.
What are the symptoms of Citrobacter?
Projectile vomiting • Seizures. Peritonitis and tunnel infection due to Citrobacter freundii have also been reported. This has most frequently been seen in hospitalized and immune-compromised patients who have been kept on ventilators and urinary catheter.
How do you treat Citrobacter?
Treatment options can be monotherapy, with agents potentially active against Citrobacter spp. or combination therapy . Aminoglycosides are important antibacterial agents since 1940s. Gentamicin and amikacin are the most commonly used aminoglycosides in clinical practice.
Can Citrobacter be cured?
Citrobacter freundii infection is usually treated with antibiotics like fluoroquinolones, carbapenems and cephalosporins. The treatment plan depends up on the vulnerability of the microbe to the antibiotics and the site of the infection.
What is Citrobacter UTI?
[1,2] The genus Citrobacter is distinct group of aerobic, gram negative bacilli from the Enterobacteriaceae family, widely distributed in water, soil, food and intestinal tract of man and animals. UTIs caused by Citrobacter species have been described in 5 to 12% of bacterial urine isolates in adults.
What diseases does Citrobacter Freundii cause?
Citrobacter freundii and Citrobacter koseri can cause urinary tract infections, and are found in wound, respiratory, meningitis, and sepsis. They can cause healthcare-associated infections, especially in pediatric and immunocompromised patients .
Are Citrobacter catalase positive?
Members of the genus Citrobacter share all the general properties and biochemical characteristics of the family Enterobacteriaceae, including the following: gram-negative rod, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, growth on MacConkey agar, reduction of nitrate to nitrite, growth both aerobically and anaerobically,
Does ertapenem cover Citrobacter?
Ertapenem has a broad antibacterial spectrum with MIC90 values < 0.5 mg/l for penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp., Proteus
How did I get Citrobacter Koseri in my urine?
The urinary tract is the most frequent site from which Citrobacter is cultured, often in association with an indwelling catheter. These bacteria may also be cultured from the respiratory tract, a finding that more often represents colonization than symptomatic infection.
What is heavy growth Citrobacter Koseri?
Citrobacter koseri, formerly known as Citrobacter diversus, is a gram-negative bacillus that causes mostly meningitis and brain abscess in neonates and infants. 1 However, brain abscess caused by Citrobacter koseri in an adult is extremely rare and only 2 cases have been described in the literature.
Where does Citrobacter Amalonaticus come from?
Citrobacter amalonaticus is normally found in the intestines, but if it manages to maintain a presence in the urinary tract, they will cause an infection, which is similar to most other urinary tract infections.
Does Cipro treat Citrobacter?
Third-generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides failed to prevent the high rates of morbidity and mortality caused by Citrobacter infections. Ciprofloxacin is the antibiotic treatment option for systemic infection or meningitis caused by Citrobacter kosery.
Is Citrobacter Koseri in urine?
koseri accounts for a variable but significant proportion of Citrobacter infections (ranging from about 19.8 to 90.2%), the most frequent localization being the urinary tract, respiratory tract, blood stream and central nervous system.
How do you treat Citrobacter UTI?
Most effective antimicrobial agent against Citrobacter spp. was imipenem (100%) followed by amikacin. In other study, most effective drug was again imipenem (91.8%) followed by piperacillin-tazobactam (58.3% sensitive).