Specialty. Neurology. Hyperkinesia refers to an increase in muscular activity that can result in excessive abnormal movements, excessive normal movements or a combination of both.
What is the most common hyperkinetic movement disorder?
Tics are the most common hyperkinetic disorder in children. Dystonia, stereotypies, choreoathetosis, tremors, and myoclonus also occur but are less common. Many hyperkinetic movement disorders manifest with multiple types of movements, which may include a combination of the various hyperkinesias.
What are some hyperkinetic conditions?
Hyperkinetic movement disorders include tremors, dystonia, chorea, tics, myoclonus, stereotypies, restless legs syndrome, and various other disorders with abnormal involuntary movements.
What are uncontrollable muscle movements?
Uncontrollable movements include many types of movements that you cannot control. They can affect the arms, legs, face, neck, or other parts of the body. Examples of uncontrollable movements are: Loss of muscle tone (flaccidity) Slow, twisting, or continued movements (chorea, athetosis, or dystonia)
What causes Hyperkinesia?
Hyperkinesia can be caused by a large number of various diseases, including metabolic disorders, endocrine disruption, hereditary disorders, vascular disorders or traumatic disorders. Other causes include intoxication of the nervous system, autoimmune diseases and infections.
What is meant by hyperkinetic?
Since the prefix hyper- means “above, beyond”, hyperkinetic describes motion beyond the usual. The word is usually applied to children, and often describes the condition of almost uncontrollable activity or muscular movements called attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder *(ADHD).
What is hyperkinetic gait?
Choreiform Gait (Hyperkinetic Gait) This gait is seen with certain basal ganglia disorders including Sydenham’s chorea, Huntington’s Disease and other forms of chorea, athetosis or dystonia. The patient will display irregular, jerky, involuntary movements in all extremities.
What causes Ballismus?
Ballismus is a severe movement disorder that is characterized by spontaneous involuntary movements, muscular weakness and incoordination of movements of the proximal extremities. It is mostly caused by neurodegenerative, vascular, toxic metabolic, infectious or immunological process affecting the basal ganglia.
How hyperkinetic conditions are related to physical activity?
People with these conditions have dangerous eating habits and often resort to excessive activity to expend calories for fat loss. Eating disorders that abuse exercise are considered hyperkinetic conditions.
What is hyperkinetic behavior?
A specific and common behavior disorder in children, the hyperkinetic syndrome, may be due to organic causes and is characterized by: hyperactivity; short attention span and poor powers of concentration; impulsiveness; irritability; explosiveness; variability; and poor school work.
What does it mean when your body randomly jumps?
A hypnic jerk is an involuntary twitch of one or more muscles that occurs as a person is falling asleep. It tends to happen just as the person is transitioning from a wakeful state to a sleeping state. Hypnic jerks are a type of involuntary muscle movement called myoclonus. Hiccups are another common form of myoclonus.
What causes legs to jump involuntarily?
Dopamine is involved in controlling muscle movement and may be responsible for the involuntary leg movements associated with restless legs syndrome. In some cases, restless legs syndrome is caused by an underlying health condition, such as iron deficiency anaemia or kidney failure.
What is it called when you have uncontrollable movements?
Involuntary movements compose a group of uncontrolled movements that may manifest as a tremor, tic, myoclonic jerk, chorea, athetosis, dystonia or hemiballism. Recognition of involuntary movements associated with hyperkinetic movement disorders is an important diagnostic skill.
How is Hyperkinesis treated?
The most useful medication at present is the stimulant group of drugs, particularly dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate. Antipsychotic drugs are sometimes useful but carry the risk of depressing higher CNS functions such as attention and cognition.
What is the difference between Hyperkinesia and Hypertonia?
Hyperkinetic signs differ from hypertonia because hypertonia is appreciated only during movement imposed by the examiner (passive movement), whereas hyperkinetic movements are appreciated during movements made (voluntarily or involuntarily) by the child (active movement).
What are hypokinetic and hyperkinetic diseases?
Hyperkinetic movement disorders refer to dyskinesia, or excessive, often repetitive, involuntary movements that intrude upon the normal flow of motor activity. Hypokinetic movement disorders refer to akinesia (lack of movement), hypokinesia (reduced amplitude of movements), bradykinesia (slow movement), and rigidity.