Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle — so brittle that a fall or even mild stresses such as bending over or coughing can cause a fracture. Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur in the hip, wrist or spine. Bone is living tissue that is constantly being broken down and replaced.
How is osteoporosis Characterised?
Osteoporosis is a disease that is characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone microarchitecture: it can lead to compromised bone strength and an increase in the risk of fractures (1).
What are 3 common causes of osteoporosis?
Three Common Causes of Osteoporosis
- Estrogen Deficiencies in Women. Women typically suffer estrogen deficiencies during perimenopause and menopause.
- Calcium Deficiencies. Bones are constantly losing and replacing minerals.
- Inactive Lifestyle.
What is the hallmark of osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is defined as a reduction in bone mass and disruption of bone architecture, resulting in reduced bone strength and increase of bone fractures. Fragility fractures are the hallmark of osteoporosis and are particularly common in the spine, hip and forearm but may also affect other sites (1).
Who osteoporosis classification?
Osteoporosis has been operationally defined on the basis of bone mineral density (BMD) assessment. According to the WHO criteria, osteoporosis is defined as a BMD that lies 2.5 standard deviations or more below the average value for young healthy women (a T-score of <-2.5 SD) (1,6).
What are the most common causes of osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is more likely to occur in people who have:
- Low calcium intake. A lifelong lack of calcium plays a role in the development of osteoporosis.
- Eating disorders. Severely restricting food intake and being underweight weakens bone in both men and women.
- Gastrointestinal surgery.
What are possible causes of osteoporosis?
- Diet. Your diet has a significant impact on the health of your bones.
- Exercise. Exercise is an essential defense against osteoporosis.
- Low Sex Hormones. When women reach menopause, their estrogen levels drop significantly.
- Medical Conditions.
- Smoking and Alcohol.
What factors can cause osteoporosis?
- Smoking. People who smoke lose bone density faster than nonsmokers.
- Alcohol use. Heavy alcohol use can decrease bone formation, and it increases the risk of falling.
- Getting little or no exercise.
- Being small-framed or thin.
- A diet low in foods containing calcium and vitamin D.
What pathological events occur in osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease that, on a cellular level, results from osteoclastic bone resorption not compensated by osteoblastic bone formation. This causes bones to become weak and fragile, thus increasing the risk of fractures.
Which 4 bones are most commonly fractured by patients with osteoporosis?
Results. Consistent with current clinical experience, the fractures rated most likely due to osteoporosis were the femoral neck, pathologic fractures of the vertebrae, and lumbar and thoracic vertebral fractures.
What is the difference between osteopenia and osteoporosis?
Bone mass and bone mineral density both decrease as people age. Osteopenia is a condition where people’s bone density is lower than is usual for their age. Osteoporosis is a more severe case of bone loss that weakens the bones and makes them more likely to fracture.
Who defined severe osteoporosis?
The WHO also defined severe osteoporosis as the presence of fragility fracture in addition to BMD T-score of −2.5 or less. This concept of severe osteoporosis is also supported by the fact that previous osteoporotic fractures increase the risk of subsequent fractures , .
What is T and Z-score?
The T-score is a comparison of a person’s bone density with that of a healthy 30-year-old of the same sex. The Z-score is a comparison of a person’s bone density with that of an average person of the same age and sex.