The neurotransmitters diffuse across the narrow space between the hair cell and a cochlear nerve terminal, where they then bind to receptors and thus trigger action potentials in the nerve. In this way, an inner hair cell acts as mechanoreceptor that transduces vibrational into electrical energy.
How do hair cells transduce sound?
Recordings of hair cell electrical responses have shown that they transduce sound via sub-micrometer deflections of their hair bundles, which are arrays of interconnected stereocilia containing the mechanoelectrical transducer (MET) channels.
How do inner hair cells detect sound?
The inner hair cells transform the sound vibrations in the fluids of the cochlea into electrical signals that are then relayed via the auditory nerve to the auditory brainstem and to the auditory cortex.
How do hair cells detect sound of different frequencies?
Different regions of the basilar membrane vibrate according to the frequency of the sound wave conducted through the fluid in the cochlea. For these reasons, the fluid-filled cochlea detects different wave frequencies (pitches) at different regions of the membrane.
How do hair cells detect Loudness?
Sound waves vibrating through media such as air, water, or metal are the stimulus energy that is sensed by the ear. The hearing system is designed to assess frequency (pitch) and amplitude (loudness). The vibrations are detected by the cilia (hair cells) and sent via the auditory nerve to the auditory cortex.
What do hair cells transduce?
Hair cells can convert the displacement of the stereociliary bundle into an electrical potential in as little as 10 microseconds; indeed, such speed is required to faithfully transduce high-frequency signals and enable the accurate localization of the source of the sound.
What do auditory receptors transduce for?
In auditory transduction, auditory refers to hearing, and transduction is the process by which the ear converts sound waves into electric impulses and sends them to the brain so we can interpret them as sound.
Where are hair cells that are stimulated by sound waves found?
Several specializations make human hair cells responsive to various forms of mechanical stimulation. Hair cells in the Organ of Corti in the cochlea of the ear respond to sound.
How do hair cells in the cochlea detect sensory input?
Cochlear hair cells are the sensory cells of the auditory system. These cells possess stereocilia connected to the tectorial membrane. During auditory stimulation, sound waves in the cochlea cause deflection of the hair cell stereocilia, which creates an electrical signal in the hair cell.
How do outer hair cells amplify sound?
Outer hair cells contract and elongate with each cycle of sound as their intracellular voltage changes. This amplifies the vibration of the organ of Corti, permitting exquisite hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity. OHCs have an intracellular turgor pressure to help maintain their shape.
How does the ear transduce sound waves in air into electrical nerve impulses?
SOUND WAVES enter the ear canal and cause the eardrum to vibrate. VIBRATIONS pass through 3 connected bones in the middle ear. This motion SETS FLUID MOVING in the inner ear. Moving fluid bends thousands of delicate hair-like cells which convert the vibrations into NERVE IMPULSES.
What happens when the hairs on the hair cells bend?
Sensory cells, called hair cells, bend in the cochlea as the fluid is disrupted by the mechanical vibrations. This bending of the hair cells causes electrical signals to be sent to the brain by way of the auditory nerve.
How do we hear sounds?
Sound waves enter the outer ear and travel through a narrow passageway called the ear canal, which leads to the eardrum. The eardrum vibrates from the incoming sound waves and sends these vibrations to three tiny bones in the middle ear. These bones are called the malleus, incus, and stapes.
How do our auditory cells detect different pitches and loudness?
High-pitched sounds are detected by cells with shorter hair bundles, located closest to where sound enters the ear; lower-pitched sounds are detected by cells with taller hair bundles located further in, and that pattern progresses through the several thousand hair cells that are essential for hearing.
How does the volume of the sound affect your hearing?
Loud noise can damage cells and membranes in the cochlea. Listening to loud noise for a long time can overwork hair cells in the ear, which can cause these cells to die. The hearing loss progresses as long as the exposure continues.