Which kind of material would be prone to liquefaction during an earthquake?
Poorly drained fine-grained soils such as sandy, silty, and gravelly soils are the most susceptible to liquefaction. Road cracking from soil liquefaction near Moss Landing, California, resulting from the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989. Granular soils are made up of a mix of soil and pore spaces.
Which of the following hazards from an earthquake threaten areas that may not be close enough to feel shaking?
Which of the following hazards from an earthquake can threaten areas that may not be close enough to feel shaking? decreasing depth from the surface and decreasing distance to the epicenter.
What effect does geologic material have on seismic waves?
Seismic waves travel faster through hard rocks than through softer rocks and sediments. As the waves pass from deeper harder to shallow softer rocks they slow down and get bigger in amplitude as the energy piles up. The softer the rock or soil under a site is, the larger the wave. Softer soils amplify ground motion.
What are the 5 effects of earthquakes?
The primary effects of earthquakes are ground shaking, ground rupture, landslides, tsunamis, and liquefaction. Fires are probably the single most important secondary effect of earthquakes.
What are the vibrations caused by earthquakes?
Measuring Earthquakes. The two general types of vibrations produced by earthquakes are surface waves, which travel along the Earth’s surface, and body waves, which travel through the Earth. Surface waves usually have the strongest vibrations and probably cause most of the damage done by earthquakes.
Which types of earthquake waves do the most damage?
Seismic waves can be classified into two basic types: body waves which travel through the Earth and surface waves, which travel along the Earth’s surface. Those waves that are the most destructive are the surface waves which generally have the strongest vibration.
What country has the most earthquakes?
Japan has the most recorded earthquakes in the world as it sits on a highly active seismic area, but research by the US Geological Survey suggests the answer is not quite as straightforward as it may seem.
Why do you think they gave you a hazard map?
They are typically created for natural hazards, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, flooding and tsunamis. Hazard maps help prevent serious damage and deaths.
Is a 3.5 magnitude earthquake dangerous?
Danger level 2 (moderate danger)
This level of intensity may be reached with earthquakes with a magnitude of around 3.5 or greater.
What type of earthquake waves cause the most severe damage to buildings?
S waves are more dangerous than P waves because they have greater amplitude and produce vertical and horizontal motion of the ground surface. The slowest waves, surface waves, arrive last. They travel only along the surface of the Earth. There are two types of surface waves: Love and Rayleigh waves.
What are the 4 ways to make buildings more earthquake resistant?
To withstand collapse, buildings need to redistribute the forces that travel through them during a seismic event. Shear walls, cross braces, diaphragms, and moment-resisting frames are central to reinforcing a building. Shear walls are a useful building technology that helps to transfer earthquake forces.
What are the primary and secondary earthquake hazards?
Primary hazards are caused by the direct interaction of seismic wave energy with the ground. Secondary hazards are caused as a consequence of that ground shaking, such as ground settlement, lateral ground displacement, liquefaction, landslides and rock falls, tsunamis, floods, fires and falling debris.
What are the 10 causes of earthquake?
Things that cause earthquakes
- Groundwater extraction – decrease in pore pressure.
- Groundwater – increase in pore pressure.
- Heavy rain.
- Pore fluid flow.
- High CO2 pressure.
- Building dams.
- No earthquakes (Seismic quiescence)
How can earthquakes affect humans?
Earthquakes usually cause severe damage to urban centres, resulting in the loss of life and damage to homes and other infrastructure. Although risks are normally associated with cities, the effects on the rural sector and farming communities can be devastating.
Can earthquakes affect your body?
Introduction. Past major earthquakes have been associated with increased prevalence of psychiatric morbidities such as anxiety disorders1, mood disorders2, sleep disorders3,4 and posttraumatic stress disorder1,3 as well as neurological complaints such as dizziness5.