The membrane facing the lumen or free surface is known as the apical membrane, while the membrane oriented away from the lumen, contacting the extracellular matrix, is known as the basal membrane and the sides of the cell contacting the neighboring cells form the lateral membrane .
What does apical and basal mean?
The basal side of the cell is the side that faces the basement membrane, i.e. the connective tissue layer the cell lives on. The apical side is the side that faces the opposite direction, usually towards the lumen (inside) of a tube.
What is apical and basal polarity?
Definition. Apicobasal polarity is a type of cell polarity specific to epithelial cells, referring to a specialised apical membrane facing the outside of the body or lumen of internal cavities, and a specialised basolateral membrane localised at the opposite side, away from the lumen.
What is a basal surface?
In histology, the basal surface is the bottom edge of the cell or tissue adjacent to the basement membrane. In particular, the epithelial tissue is a group of cells (called epithelial cells) that lie together to carry out a common function. It is also through it that the epithelial layers receive nourishment.
What is the apical basal axis?
The apical-basal axis (1) of the plant represents a polarity established in embryogenesis with the shoot apical meristem being at the apical end and the root meristem residing at basal tip shown here in a longitudinal section of an Arabidopsis shoot (A).
What does apical mean?
Definition of apical 1: of, relating to, or situated at an apex. 2: of, relating to, or formed with the tip of the tongue n, l, and r are apical consonants.
Is apical inside or outside?
Epithelial have two functionally and biochemically different surfaces. The apical faces external environment or lumen of a tube where it is often involved in absorption or secretion. The basal mediates attachment to underlying tissue or surface via integrins.
What is basal polarity?
Apical–basal polarity is a fundamental property of epithelial cells, which have membranes that are organized into subcellular compartments that enable cells to interpret and interact with their microenvironment to control proliferation, survival, migration, cell division, stem cell division, and differentiation.
What is extracellular matrix?
A large network of proteins and other molecules that surround, support, and give structure to cells and tissues in the body. The extracellular matrix helps cells attach to, and communicate with, nearby cells, and plays an important role in cell growth, cell movement, and other cell functions.
What is goblet cell?
Goblet cells (GCs) are specialized epithelial cells that line multiple mucosal surfaces and have a well-appreciated role in barrier maintenance through the secretion of mucus. Moreover, GCs secrete anti-microbial proteins, chemokines, and cytokines demonstrating functions in innate immunity beyond barrier maintenance.
What is an apical surface?
The apical surface of epithelial tissue refers to the outward facing side of the tissue made up of the apical side of the epithelial cells.
What is the apical layer?
The apical surface of epithelial cells, which lines the lumen of sac- and tube-shaped organs and the inner surfaces of the body cavities, forms the interface between the extracellular milieu and underlying tissues.
What is the difference between apical and basolateral membrane?
In the context of renal tubule physiology, the term basolateral membrane or serosal membrane refers to the cell membrane which is oriented away from the lumen of the tubule, whereas the term luminal membrane or apical membrane refers to the cell membrane which is oriented towards the lumen.
How many apical meristems are found on a plant?
There are two apical meristem locations in most plants.